ESOP Financing: Access the capital you need to exercise your stock options

by Sandeep Kumar | June 1, 2021

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Why ESOPs are given?

Employees are granted stock options for a variety of reasons. Stock options are more frequent in start-up companies that can’t afford to pay their employees significant wages but are willing to share in the company’s future success. In such cases, stock options are given to employees as part of their remuneration package. In some cases, the employee is also given stock options, which he can exercise at a later date/s, in order to ensure his long-term commitment. Employee stock ownership plans (ESOPs) assist to build a sense of belonging and connection among employees in addition to giving monetary benefits.

When a stock option is provided to an employee under an ESOP program, it is free. The ESOP scheme spells out the terms and conditions under which an employee can use his rights. After a specific lock-in time, which is usually more than a year, the employee’s option can be exercised.

How do they work – vesting portion

The right to exercise the option may vest in the employee at a later time. The “vesting date” is the date on which an employee becomes eligible to exercise his or her right to purchase shares. The rights may vest fully or partially over the vesting period.

For example, on 31 March 2018, an employee is granted 1000 options, which can be exercised in three phases: 20% at completion of the first year, 30% with completion of the second year, and 50% on completion of the third year from the date of the grant. So, in this situation, the vesting dates for 200 options are 1 April 1 2018, for 300 shares, 31 March 2020, and for the remaining 500 shares, 31 March 2021.

For such vesting, the plan may specify the same or a different grant price or exercise price. The grant price, or the price at which an employee can purchase a share from the company, is usually set and is significantly lower than the current market price of the shares.

It is not mandatory for the employee to exercise the option because it is only presented as an option with no obligation linked to it. In the event that the current price of the shares is lower than the exercise price, the employee can choose to execute the option or let it lapse. The employee is granted a certain amount of time to execute his option, after which his vested rights may lapse. The ‘exercise date’ is the day on which an employee exercises his option to purchase shares.

When options are granted, as well as when they are vested in the employee, there are no financial outflows or tax ramifications.

Exercising options: why, how much, and when?

If your current cash curve isn’t doing as well as you’d like, exercising stock options may be able to help.

Exercising, on the other hand, is an investment in terms of money. Is it therefore worthwhile to pay the price?

When executing options, you pay money to increase your cash curve. The more options you utilize, the more money you spend; nevertheless, the curve improves as you utilize more options.

The numbers will change depending on your situation. You boost your chances of making more money in the future by paying today. However, if your company fails, you will lose that money.

An employee’s option does not have to be exercised after it has vested in him. The employee has a certain amount of time to exercise his or her privilege. When an employee should exercise his or her options is a crucial subject from a financial and taxation standpoint.

The employee must pay the preset price for the shares when he exercises the option, resulting in a financial outflow. Because the shares cannot be sold unless they are listed on a stock exchange, the money is locked up until the shares are listed or the promoters offer you a way out. Furthermore, extending your exercise date has tax implications because the capital gain holding period begins on the exercise date. As a result, the decision must be taken carefully after considering the cash flow and tax implications.

You exercise your options and officially have shares

When it comes to exercising, you have complete control. As long as you work for the company, you can buy shares whenever you want, and you don’t have to buy them all at once. When you leave a company, you usually have 90 days to decide what you want to do next (a few companies extend this to 5, 7, or 10 years).

You can exercise closer to the exit and then pay for it with the money you earn, so there are no out-of-pocket expenses. However, there are a number of disadvantages to this method.

It’s a big decision to decide which tactic to use.

Your company exits – finally!

When a business closes, one of two things happens:

  1. It is acquired, which means that another firm buys it. Microsoft purchased GitHub, Amazon purchased Twitch, and Facebook purchased WhatsApp. It goes public, which means it sells its stock in an initial public offering on the open market (IPO). Slack, Uber, and Lyft have all done just that.

Employees usually have a 90- or 180-day ‘lock-up’ period after the IPO during which they are unable to sell their shares.

You can sell your shares for a profit if the company’s exit value is high enough.

Your alternatives would be pointless if you didn’t have a way out.

Determination of your shares’ exit value

Your cash curve determines how much money you’ll make if your firm goes bankrupt.

Your ISOs and NSOs are in place to make you money in the future. “Exit” was the moniker given to that particular day. This occurs when your firm goes public via an initial public offering (IPO) or is acquired by another company. The amount of money you receive if and when your company closes is dependent on how successful it has grown. Your company’s exit value is determined by its level of success.

Regrettably, the exit value is unpredictably variable. You’ll never know how much money you’ll make as a result of your efforts. The only certainty is that when the exit value rises, you will make more money.

When should you sell the shares?

Selling an ESOP stock is equivalent to selling any other type of investment. You must evaluate the capital gains implications as well as the need for liquidity when making a decision. The selection will also be based on the Company’s future prospects.

It’s also possible that the shares you purchased through an ESOP aren’t listed, in which case you won’t be able to sell them until they are, or until the promoters offer you an exit, which may or may not be under very favourable terms. It would be advisable to wait until the shares are listed on a stock exchange in this scenario.

Tax implications when exercising the option

The taxes of ESOPs have a common structure. It is subjected to two levels of taxation.

The employee’s option to purchase shares at the exercise price is exercised in the first stage. The shares are eventually sold in the second stage.

First stage, 

When an employee’s ESOP options are exercised, the difference between the exercise price and the security’s value is treated as a prerequisite in the employee’s hands. The employer must deduct tax from the employee who exercises the option at source, recognizing it as a prerequisite. If the shares are listed on any stock exchange in India, the value of the shares given to the employee will be the average of the market price (average of highest and lowest price) on the date the option is exercised. In that instance, the fair market value will be determined by the merchant banker’s valuation certificate. The certificate of share valuation must be no more than 180 days old from the date of option exercise. Even if the shares are listed outside of India, the Company must get a certificate from a Merchant Banker because such shares are considered unlisted for ESOP purposes.

Second stage,

When the employee sells his/her stock. Capital gains tax will be imposed if a sale occurs. Depending on how long the employee has owned the shares, the gains can be either long or short term. The holding time requirements for both listed and unlisted shares are different.

Starting from F.Y. 2016- 17, If the holding period is more than 12 months, the listed shares will become long-term. However, if the holding period is more than 24 months, unlisted shares will be considered long-term.

The period of holding begins from the start of exercise date and ends at the date of sale.

At present the long-term capital gains on listed equity shares (on a recognized stock exchange) is tax free, however, short-term capital gains are taxed at 15%. Let us explain!

When shares are traded through a broker the long-term capital gains are fully exempt under Section 10(38) of the Income Tax Act.  However, as per the newly inserted section 112A via Finance Act 2018, if the amount of long-term capital gain exceeds Rs 100,000 than the amount in excess of Rs 100,000 shall be chargeable to tax at 10% without indexation (plus heath and education cess and surcharge). However, the application of sec 112A is subjected to certain conditions, one of it being the transfer should have taken place on or after 1st April 2018. Moreover, such short-term capital gains shall be taxed at flat rate of 15% under Section 111A.

If the shares are not sold through the stock exchange’s platform, long-term capital gains are calculated by indexing the original purchase price. Indexed gains will be taxed at a 20% flat rate, plus any applicable surcharges and cess. Short-term capital gains are treated like any other form of income, and they are combined with other kinds of income and taxed at the appropriate slab rate.

For the purposes of computing capital gains, the cost of acquisition is treated as FMV (fair market value) on the date of exercise, which is taken into account for the purposes of perquisites of the options, rather than the amount actually paid by the employee.

Taxation of Foreign ESOPs

If a foreign company grants an ESOP to an Indian resident, the ESOP will be taxable in India. Furthermore, the tax regulations of the company’s home country, as well as the double taxation avoidance agreement, must be investigated in order to determine the actual tax implications. Furthermore, because these shares would not be offered on Indian stock exchanges and are unlikely to be listed in India, the long-term capital gains exemption under Section 10(38) or the concessional rate of 15% tax on short-term capital gains in respect of such shares would not be available. ‍ 

When you have incurred a loss

In case you have incurred a loss you are allowed to carry forward short term capital losses in your tax return and you are eligible to set them off against short term capital gains in the coming years. Long term loss on equity shares is a dead loss and has no treatment, simply because gains are not taxable as well.

Torre’s Offering: Non-recourse financing and how it benefits startup employees‍

Employees in private enterprises (like you) can execute stock options using non-recourse financing. Because the loan is non-recourse, your other personal assets are never in danger.

For example, if the loan is non-recourse, the lender accepts the risk and you are not required to put up personal assets as collateral, such as your automobile.

Before we get into the technicalities, let’s take a look at why financing is useful in the first place.

It’s usually better to execute your stock options as soon as possible rather than later. If your company grows, exercising sooner means paying less tax both during the exercise and after the IPO— which means more profit for you.

However, exercising options can be financially out of reach for many employees of high-growth businesses on the verge of an IPO or exit. Consider this: exercising options costs nearly twice as much as a household’s annual income.

Furthermore, as the value of start-ups rises, exercising options becomes more expensive and prohibitive. That’s because the higher your options’ 409a valuation, the more tax you could owe.

Non-recourse finance can aid in this situation. It works like a cash advance, allowing you to exercise your start-up stock options without having to pay for them out of pocket.

How it works?

The lender delivers you the funds you need to execute your stock options and pay your taxes. You wait for your company to go out of business. There are no monthly interest payments, unlike a traditional loan.

If your firm has a successful exit (such as an IPO), you repay the money you borrowed plus any fees. You owe nothing if your company does not exit or falls out of business entirely. The lender is responsible for the loss. Your other personal assets are never at risk because it’s non-recourse finance.

If you already own stock in your company, non-recourse financing might enable you to access cash for other financial goals, such as buying a house or diversifying your stock portfolio, without having to sell your stock.

Is non-recourse financing too good to be true?‍

So what’s the catch?

To summarise, non-recourse financing does not put your personal assets at risk, and the financing source bears all of the adverse risk. So, what’s in it for the financial service provider?

Case 1: The supplier benefits from your success: the more effective the exit, the better for everyone. In the end, the amount you owe is determined by the value of your equity.

For example, you have $100,000 worth of ESOPs and on a successful exit you gain $50,000 then a commission of 30% would be charged which is $15,000 plus the principal amount. Similarly, if your gain is higher let’s say $80,000 then you owe a charge of 30% of $80,000 that is $24,000 plus the principal amount, hence the amount you owe will be determined by your equity value at the exit event.

Case 2: The financing provider receives a share of your pay-out plus a return of the initial advance if you successfully depart (plus any interest).

Continuing the previous example along with the commission on profit x% of interest will be levied on the principal amount. Suppose you borrowed $80,000 for exercising the ESOP, x% of that amount will be charged as interest in addition to a $15,000 commission.

Case 3: The funding provider bears the brunt of the loss if the exit fails. There is no payoff for the lender to take a portion of, and you are not required to repay the original advance.

Carrying forward the previous example of $100,000 worth of ESOPs. Suppose, the exit the value of your position is $90,000 and you are in loss of $10,000. Hence, there will be no payoff to take commission and we will bear the loss without bothering the borrower. Plus, the borrower will not be required to repay the principal amount, nor his personal assets be liable.

We are ready to take such a risk because we are very selective about the companies we engage with —thus, the people we finance. As finance providers, we also diversify the risk by investing in multiple start-ups.

How Torre can help‍?

We’re on a mission to assist start-up employees and shareholders understand, maximize, and unlock their stock’s value. We offer non-recourse stock option exercise financing to help you reap the benefits of exercising your options early. We also offer financing alternatives that allow you to access the cash of your hard-earned equity prior to departure without selling your stock.

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Understanding how the pandemic has fueled the growth of the Secondaries Market

by Sandeep Kumar

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Secondaries Market and its Performance during Pandemic

The buy-and-sell of pre-existing investor commitments to private equity and other alternative investment funds is referred to as the private-equity secondary market. Transferring interests in private equity and hedge funds can be more complicated and time-consuming due to the lack of established trading venues for these interests. Private equity has traditionally been an illiquid sector, with institutional investors acquiring buyout funds and waiting more than ten years to enjoy the rewards. Private Equity was designed for investors who preferred to buy and hold assets rather than sell them for a quick profit.

Market downturns have historically had a short-term impact on secondary markets. The Covid-19 pandemic has brought about an evolution in the financial world and a similar change has been witnessed in the private equity secondary market. Through this article we will understand how the secondaries performance has fuelled post the onset of pandemic.

Historical Returns in the Midst of Pandemic

Market downturns have historically had a short-term impact on secondary markets, reducing transaction volumes, delaying realisations and distributions, and placing downward pressure on price. Secondary markets have usually returned from market downturns with significant activity, and have presented excellent possibilities for investors with available investment money once volatility has subsided and stability has been restored.

During the pandemic, due to great degree of uncertainties and subsequent volatility, investors in the secondary market grabbed the opportunity by buying the dip and securing their positions by purchasing at greater discounts. According to Greenhill’s Report, greater interest has been seen particularly in COVID-proof” sectors, newer vintage funds and more concentrated exposures, which are easier to diligence and underwrite. The secondary market experienced large volume growth in the second half of 2020 and into 2021. In 2021, we can expect secondary transaction volume to hit new highs. Secondaries may find more enticing pricing as a result of the market’s uncertainty, resulting in increased prospects and profitability.

Why the secondaries market are attractive?

· Recent Vintages (post-2015): Recent vintages with unfunded capital have become more attractive to investors in the present circumstances. Investors get insight into the portfolio and platform investments, as well as assurance that the increased cash available may be used offensively as well as defensively. High-quality GPs with ample money who are seen as capable of handling market disruption are especially appealing.

· GP-led Transactions: The number of tail-end funds and older assets appears to have risen with the possibility that the COVID-19 epidemic would further delay exits. High-quality general partners have continued to use the secondary market to maintain high-performing firms while also providing current limited partners with a liquidity alternative. With a number of secondary deals started this summer, the GP-driven market has led the resurgence in secondary transactions.

· Single Asset Transfers: As the frequency of single asset transactions in high-quality firms increases, general partners keep seeking for methods to keep their best companies. Diversifying among funds is one method secondary investors may reduce concentration risk. Single asset transactions are especially desirable in the COVID-19 environment since it is easier to assess the impact of COVID-19 on a single firm than a large mix of portfolio.

· Dry Powder Advantage: These days, investors are demand more liquidity and the ability to rebalance their portfolios across asset classes. Due to this demand, a secondary market has emerged where investors may sell or buy private equity commitments rather than just waiting for a return. The seller of a PE share can access liquidity in the secondary market, just as in the normal stock market, while the buyer receives access to private equity funds and diversification.

It has been estimated that in the year 2020, players in the secondary market have enjoyed high levels of dry powder that is ready for deployment. They are in a position to enjoy profitability by buying in at above average discounts to lock in greater appreciation. With the current trends, it is estimated that the transaction value for secondaries will exceed $100 Bn by the end of 2021. The growth trend is not expected to end anytime soon as markets are now more liquid than ever due to technological innovations in the field and the growing acceptance of digital assets and tokenization.

Source: Acuity Knowledge Partners

Secondary Buyouts

Since 2006 to 2019, SBOs have witnessed a growth of 5.2% per year. This option has been experiencing rising popularity due to better liquidity options and lower risk staregies. Study conducted by Deloitte estimated that more than half of the investors surveyed expect SBO funds will offer one of the best opportunities for returns over 2020–2021.

Source: Deloitte Insights

The Way Forward

As a result of the current market dislocation, protracted volatility, and ongoing pandemic, the secondary market has seen lower pricing and more opportunities in younger assets. Financial decisions made by investors in the secondary market may be influenced by structural changes caused by economic crises, and failing to account for these fundamental breakdowns in the market may result in investors making incorrect interpretations and portfolio selections. However, secondaries are still, absolutely a great place to put your money. In the second half of 2020 and into 2021, the secondary market saw significant volume growth. Secondary transaction activity is expected to reach new highs in 2021.


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This article has been co-authored by Tamanna Kapur and Sargam Pallod , who is in the Research and Insights team of Torre Capital.

The state of European Fintech and with the explosive growth and maturity, who are here to stay?

by Sandeep Kumar

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Overview of European Fintech Market

From payment processing to insurance and wealth management, the digitisation of the financial services has led to a massive growth of the fintech market all across the world. In this article we will be focusing on the European region in particular, where the fintech market is growing so rapidly that the fintech adoption in the region has surpassed that of the USA. At the start of the year 2021, Klarna was the only fintech decacorn in the region and now Revolut and Checkout have also joined the club. The year saw a record growth in the number of fintech unicorn additions as 19 startups were promoted to unicorn status.

Source: Crunchbase

Surge of Fintech Funding in Europe

Overall funding to European fintech scale-ups reached €4.55 Bn in 2017, but fell to €3.52 Bn in 2018. However, in 2019, European fintech businesses, particularly those in the growth and late-stage stages, witnessed a massive increase in fundraising rounds, culminating in a total of €8.81 Bn in fintech funding, a 150% increase over the previous year and nearly double the number in 2017. Around €4 Bn was raised by European fintech businesses in the first half of 2020, already more than in the full year of 2018, but lagging behind the trend of 2019, when more than €8.8 Bn was raised.

Fintech Investments size in European Funding Round till H1 2020

Regulatory Environment

The rise of non-financial companies into the tightly regulated financial sector has resulted in a rising need for regulators, the fintech community, and the financial services industry to properly engage with developments in this space. The vast bulk of financial services legislation and regulatory norms predate rapid technological advancements and consumer demand for change. While governments in a lot of nations want to be viewed as promoting innovation, the law has been slower to catch up.

Regulatory authorities across Europe, including the European Central Bank, the FCA in the United Kingdom, the AMF and ACPR in France, the AFM and DNB in the Netherlands, the European Commission and Parliament, the BaFin in Germany, the CSSF in Luxembourg, and the European Securities and Markets Authority (ESMA), have publicly stated their support and launched new regulatory initiatives to encourage innovation, along with the European Commission and Parliament, the European Central Bank, and the European Securities and Markets Authority (ESMA). The EU Commission has started a study on technology and its influence on the European financial services industry as part of its customer finance action plan, which is expected to have a substantial impact.

Growth in Europe’s FinTech Deals

With about a third of the region’s unicorns belonging to the fintech sector, companies have attracted the interest of the investors. With a collective valuation of $178 Bn, the market has raised more than $11 Bn in the present year. In the first half itself, the market had raised funding that was 1.5x of the previous year. While the number of deals in Q2- 2021 fell sequentially by 8%, the investments have grown by 30%. This has resulted in hitting a quarterly record of $7 Bn which was facilitated by megarounds of Klarna, Trade Republic, SaltPay, etc. The recent focus of investors as observed has been on wealth management and insurance tech.

Source: Crunchbase

Record Year for Fintech Exits

The growth of European fintech has also facilitated the rise of fintech exits in the region. The first half of 2021 witnessed about $26.5 Bn (or €22.6 Bn) worth of exits. This has been a record high in the exit scenario, and gives high hopes to investors, particularly after less than $2 Bn worth of exit activity in 2020.

The most successful one this year has been the public listing of Wise — a London-based money transfer company. The company went for direct listing in the London Stock Exchange which increased the company’s valuation to over $13 Bn as of August 2021. Apart from this, Tink and Currencycloud were strategically acquired by Visa for $2.1 Bn (€1.8 Bn) and $960 Mn (£700 Mn) respectively.

In total, fintech exits banked VCs $70 Bn during the period from January till July. Of the total figure, about 20% of the exit figures have come from Europe.

How are Different Segments Faring?

The use of technology in financial services is vast and gives rise to various segments including payment processing, neobanks, insuretech, crypto-exchange, wealth management tech, etc. Let us have a look at how some of these sectors have been performing:

 Payment Platform — With the digital payments sector expanding across the globe, this segment has benefited from a high proportion of funding received over the years. This is evident from the success stories of Klarna and Checkout. The pandemic has further accelerated the potential of the sector. Looking at the top 10 VC backed fintech exits in the region, more than half of the companies belong to the payments and money transfer segment, these include WorldPay, Wise, Adyen, etc.

 Insurtech — This segment has been witnessing greater attention from investors since 2020. In the first quarter of 2020, insurtech comprised about 20% of the total fintech rounds in Europe. The sector’s combined valuation for the year amounts to over $23 Bn. Insurtech funding in Q2 of 2021, has increased by about 403% on just Quarter on Quarter basis.

 WealthTech — Wealth management technology companies, or simply the WealthTech sector has also led growth along with the insurtech sector, witnessing an increase in the investor preference. While the number of deals for the segment increased by only 9%, the funding in Q2 of 2021 grew by 272% on Quarter on Quarter basis.

 Cryptocurrency and DeFi — Cryptocurrency and Decentralised Finance (DeFi) are gaining momentum in the finance world. With great buzz around crypto, the funding in such companies has jumped 300% from what it was in 2019, amounting to $1.4 Bn this year. Some examples of companies in this segment include — Elliptic,, Copper, etc.

 Other Segments — Looking at the Quarter on Quarter funding rounds, funds in fintechs involved in the banking segment as well as capital markets rose by 70% individually and digital lending by 64%. On the other hand, QoQ investments in real-estate fintechs fell by 87%.

How has the Pandemic Impacted the Market and What is the Way Forward

With the onset of the Covid-19 pandemic, there has been greater reliance on digitization of various operations across different industries. This has facilitated the growth of the fintech sector post-pandemic as businesses are working to adapt to the new normal. The regulatory environment has also supported the growth process in the European region, so much that it is now performing better than North America. Particularly, the payments segment has always been investors’ favourite, however, the post-pandemic focus of investors has shifted towards insurtech and wealth management tech firms.

We believe the current boom of the fintech market in the continent is to be continued in the coming years. This is evident from the significant growth in the VC funding in recent years, with the overall funding round size average increasing by over 100% compared to three years ago. Investors are expected to gain huge returns from the growing valuations of some unicorns and their great successful exits.


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This article has been co-authored by Tamanna Kapur and  , who is in the Research and Insights team of Torre Capital.

Security Tokens: The next big trend which will revolutionize the Private Markets

by Sandeep Kumar

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Understanding Security Tokens

Blockchain is one of the most rapidly growing digital technologies in recent history, and its revolutionary decentralized model is being adopted by a wide range of industries. With the total Security Token market crossing $1 Bn in total volumes in July 2021, the discussion around how security tokens can transform and enable access to otherwise inaccessible private markets has been growing. Security tokens are essentially digital contracts that are blockchain-based protocols embedded in the network for fractions of any existing asset, such as real estate, a car, or corporate stock.

When investors use security tokens, their ownership stake is recorded on the blockchain ledger. With their ability to demonstrate value, security tokens have the potential to disrupt traditional financial markets in favor of newer, more hybrid blockchain models. They combine the merits of blockchain technology and regulated securities market, offering a wide range of financial assets including fractional ownership opportunities which allow investors to trade even the most illiquid assets like private shares, real estate, art, and even esoteric assets like vintage cars.

Owing to these benefits, there has been increasing adoption of STO in both public and private markets, so much so that some expect it to even outperform the traditional markets in the next 5–10 years.

Evolution of STOs and their Growth

The idea of STOs evolved from Initial Coin Offerings (ICOs) which serve as utility tokens distributed to raise capital from investors. ICOs may even involve the use of virtual assets that are yet to be built on the ecosystem. Since the launch of Ethereum in 2014, ICOs were successfully issued for several securities till 2016. However, with its success, the number of scams in the ICO market also increased with about 80% of the ICO projects deemed to be a fraud. These issues led to the development of STOs as they provide a shield of compliance, regulation, and tokenization to digital assets transactions.

The roots for STOs were set up in 2017, and it started to gain traction in 2018 with a total of 28 STOs raising a collective value of $442 Mn during the year. As per PWC’s 6th ICO/ STO report, over $4 Bn was raised through 380 token offerings in the year 2020. Tokenization of assets and the subsequent market for STOs is expected to witness exponential growth in the future, growing at a CAGR of 59% during the period 2019–2030.

How Do Security Tokens Work?

Making a security token entails reserving and naming your token symbol, developing a token that can enforce regulatory compliance through programming, and minting and distributing the token to investors. When an off-chain traditional financial asset is represented on-chain, it becomes a tokenized security. Tokenizing an existing share certificate is a good example. An issuer creates a security token that represents a claim to ownership in a company. The issuer then creates a whitelist of wallet addresses (typically Ethereum) of investors who are permitted to purchase stock in the company or invest in the concerned security. All individuals on the whitelist must demonstrate that they comply with the restrictions for that specific security.

If you try to trade a security token with a counterparty, the Issuer will check to see if they are whitelisted. If they are, the transaction is completed. If not, it will display an error message and you will be unable to complete the transaction. This is possible through smart contracts, or autonomous contracts on the Blockchain, which give the ability to be automated and transacted with little cost and in a short amount of time. Security tokens, in contrast to the majority of other crypto assets, are not bearer instruments. Because anyone who obtains your Bitcoin private key has the ability to spend your Bitcoin, it is a bearer instrument.

The security token is an electronic representation of the security rather than the security itself, hence cannot be stolen. No one can transfer a token to their wallet unless it is whitelisted; otherwise, they would have gone through KYC/AML and you would have known who they were. Hence, security tokens are well secured.

Types of Security Tokens and their Acceptability

· Equity Tokens  The ownership of an item, like corporate stock or debt, is represented by equity tokens.

· Asset-backed Tokens — This is a blockchain-based token that is linked to a tangible or intangible object of significant value.

· Utility Tokens — Utility tokens give users access to a product or service at a later time. Companies can utilize these to raise funds for blockchain project development.

· Debt Tokens — Debt tokens are the equivalent of a short-term loan with an interest rate based on the amount borrowed by the company. Example — Steem.

How are security tokens transforming the private markets?

Due to limited access, opaque pricing, intermediaries, high minimums of $100K+, limited liquidity choices, time-consuming and burdensome legalities, and other factors, non-institutional investors are unable to have easy and direct access to high-quality private market investment possibilities.

Security tokens allow investors to buy, sell, and swap rights to shares of private corporations using digital tokens, overcoming the problems in the secondary market for private equity. It’s critical that it records, issues, and validates sales all at once. This benefits both existing secondary market investors and makes secondary markets more accessible to a wider group of investors. It ensures transparent ownership and pricing.

A digital token would allow an investor to sell security far more readily than actual shares in a startup (which require notarial acts or intermediaries). We’re talking about a type of investment that combines the safety and security of reality — owing to a stable value represented by a real asset — with the investment simplicity of the blockchain world, which requires no notary deeds or lengthy processes to manage securities, but only a digital wallet! Investing in private markets is as easy as in public markets.

Benefits of Security Tokens

· Improves accessibility to real-world digitized assets

With a total of $256 Tn in real-world assets available globally, asset classes such as fine arts and real estate have numerous opportunities to open up trading spheres and be traded easily and quickly with STOs.

· Enabling Fractional ownership

Security tokens can be used to raise cash for large-scale investments. The value of a costly art collection can be split down into fractions and distributed to a large number of investors using security tokens. The security token investors would benefit from the increase in the value of art collectibles. People can build their portfolios without having to spend a big sum of money since security tokens allow investors to acquire fractions of fine art or collectibles. However, semantics, such as dividing the value into fractional ownership, must be addressed.

· Provides Increased Liquidity

Liquidity is determined by the number of traders (sellers and buyers) in a particular market. Accelerating transactions and fractional ownership through asset tokenization has the potential to increase liquidity by allowing more people to enter the investment space and buy/sell at higher volumes. Security tokens increase liquidity by making it easier to buy and sell in a market or underlying asset that is not available or difficult to buy or sell. Security token offerings are a win-win situation in terms of overall liquidity when it comes to asset classes that were illiquid in nature.

· Transparency

The status of a security token transaction can be tracked from start to finish, and all parties involved have access to an up-to-date golden source of truth on-chain. With an up-to-date record, it reduces record-keeping disputes and the need for parties to reconcile.

· Reduces Cost

Security tokens aim to eliminate intermediaries and simplify investing for investors. Chainiumu, a crowdfunding platform, was created with the sole purpose of connecting investors to investors without the use of go-betweens. In the long run, this will increase accountability and transparency. With an STO, businesses can enable investment through tokenization. Because smart contracts can embed trading restrictions into a token, the cost of an IPO or other securities trading can be significantly reduced.

Major projects in the STO space

· Tezos

BTG Pactual, Latin America’s third-largest investment bank, and Dalma Capital, a Dubai-based asset manager, announced plans to launch security token offerings on the Tezos blockchain in 2019. According to a press release, the banks hope to “address a deal pipeline of more than $1 Bn for existing and prospective token issuances.”

· TZero

tZERO is a technology company whose mission is to democratize access to private capital markets. It is a subsidiary of Medici Ventures,, Inc.’s blockchain-focused wholly-owned subsidiary. tZero was created to provide more legitimacy and oversight to initial coin offerings (ICOs), as well as to allow businesses to create and issue tokenized assets for investors. tZero, unlike other decentralized blockchain platforms, has been designated as an alternative trading system (ATS) and is regulated by the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) and the Financial Industry Regulatory Authority (FINRA).

· Polymath

The platform’s primary goal is to assist traditional financial securities in integrating with blockchain technology. Polymath is based on the fact that tangible assets are being drawn towards being a part of blockchain technology, which is primarily powered by its native token (Poly). Polymath is made up of four core layers that define token creation and adherence to the operating guidelines. These include the Protocol layer, Application layer, Legal layer, and Exchange layer.

In general, the protocol layer is in charge of all platform computation. The application layer, on the other hand, allows users to generate their security tokens. Those who want to create tokens on the forum can get help from the legal layer. Finally, the exchange layer functions more like a closed-end KYC/AML accreditation, providing users with instant liquidity for their assets.

Developments that needs to be catered in the long run

· Wider acceptability

STOs will take time to gain trust due to the poor reputation of ICOs in the market. To be accepted by the mass, major financial institutions must vouch for STOs. This would take some time, even with the security of regulatory requirements. The time has come to impose regulatory requirements that will act as an excellent first line of defense and protect investors.

· Integrating systems and requirements

Companies will be responsible for developing data transport protocols and interfaces, as well as writing and maintaining the existing system architecture. This may necessitate the use of specialized skill sets, which will increase costs in terms of both human resources and system enhancements to interface with SSTO-specific blockchain technologies.

A glimpse of the future

It is clear that significant changes are already taking place in the realm of finance and investing, and many of them have the potential to be beneficial. This is especially true for people who are enthusiastic about blockchain technology and the opportunities it provides. Security Tokens combine blockchain technology with the requirements of regulated securities markets to facilitate asset liquidity and financial accessibility. These tokens are regulated securities that are issued in the form of digital tokens in a blockchain ecosystem. Through automation and “smart contracts,” the blockchain environment promotes securities regulatory objectives of disclosure, fairness, and market integrity, as well as innovation and efficiency. The security token market cap increased by more than 500% in 2020, and the best is yet to come for security token offerings. Securities, which are traded financial assets such as equities, debt, and more, can become even more effective by employing blockchain as a foundation.

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This article has been co-authored by Sayan Mitra and  , who is in the Research and Insights team of Torre Capital.

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